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After the Mladić verdict, I want to thank the man who saved me | Genocide



By the time he was arrested in the village of Lazarevo in Serbia in May 2011, former Bosnian Serb military commander Ratko Mladić was a shadow of the man I met in Srebrenica in July 1995. He was arrested after 16 years in hiding, successfully evading the arrest warrant issued by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY). There’s little doubt that the Serbian police and intelligence agencies – which executed his arrest following years of international pressure on Serbia to hand over Mladić and other war crimes suspects – had also been helping him remain free all that time. When he finally showed up at court in The Hague, a ruin of a man, he was adamant that he – who oversaw the Srebrenica genocide operation and commanded a hundreds-of-thousands-strong military in a conflict that resulted in over a million refugees, 100,000 dead, and countless suffering – did no wrong.

After a trial spanning five years, with 530 working days, 9,914 exhibits, and 592 witnesses, the court disagreed. It found him guilty in November 2017 of one count of genocide, six counts of crimes against humanity, and four counts of violations of laws or customs of war. He was sentenced to life imprisonment. Mladić appealed the decision.

On Tuesday, the International Residual Mechanism for International Tribunals (IRMCT), a legal entity that has inherited international tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, upheld Mladić’s convictions and confirmed his life sentence. Its judgement was final and cannot be appealed any further.

As I watched the IRMCT judges deliver their verdict, I thought that even after Mladić is gone his life’s work is going to remain among us. His heritage will continue to poison our future. I did take comfort in the fact, however, that he was going to spend the rest of his life languishing in prison and fearing for his life every second.

Reflecting on how long we have waited for justice to be served, I thought of the man who saved me from certain death at the hands of Mladić’s so-called Army of Republika Srpska. I realised I never got to thank him.

When the town fell to Mladić’s troops, I found myself in Potočari, at the base belonging to the Dutch battalion (Dutchbat) responsible for enforcing the “Safe Area” designated in Srebrenica under a UN Security Council resolution. Tens of thousands of civilians from Srebrenica sought protection in Potočari on July 11, 1995. By the early evening of July 13, they were all forcibly removed. The only Bosniaks remaining in the enclave were a group of local interpreters and employees of various UN and international agencies, including my friend Hasan Nuhanović and myself.

We watched as the Serb soldiers – with the Dutchbat facilitating – forcibly removed 30,000 people in the course of three days. The base and the fields around it were suddenly empty. On July 13, the killing started all around us. At night, stragglers, sometimes wounded, would seek help at the Dutchbat gate. They were all turned away. The Dutch called me to translate. They made me say no to the men. Then I stood there and watched them disappear back into the dark, knowing that they had no chance of surviving.

In the afternoon of July 14, a fax arrived at Dutchbat headquarters. It was brief and contained legal advice and two names. It read: “This is to advise you that, according to the UNPF Legal Advisor, UNPROFOR has a legal obligation to evacuate its local staff employed under the 300 Series contract. While recognizing your own difficult situation, it is nevertheless imperative that all measures must be taken to ensure the safety and safe evacuation of the two UNMO interpreters: Mr. Hasan Nuhanovic (TZ 00172), Mr. Emir Suljagic (TZ 00173).”

This text did not necessarily ensure that Hasan and I would survive, but it did mean that, out of all the Bosniak men trapped at the Dutchbat base in Potočari and around it, someone knew about Hasan and me, and was interceding on our behalf. The document contained another paragraph requesting that the sender be informed in case anything should go wrong.

Hasan and I were lucky in that we had signed a specific type of UN contract. I am sure that none of us knew what that meant at the time we signed. We were also lucky in that there was a man sitting in Tuzla, whom we only met a few times and who, for whatever reason, decided to act on that contract.

Kenneth Biser was a burly former US Army lieutenant-colonel working in the Civilian Affairs department of the UN mission in Tuzla, in the Bosnian Government-held territory. He came to Srebrenica a few times, driving from Tuzla through numerous Serb checkpoints during the siege. He would speak to the two of us during his visits, but that was the extent of our relationship. I thought of him as well informed, sarcastic, and likeable.

The message Biser sent was prompted by a secret telephone call that Hasan made to Tuzla from the Dutchbat communication centre. If anyone found out Hasan had entered the communication centre, he would be expelled from the base, even if that meant that he would not survive. I can still remember a Dutch warrant officer turning us away from the battalion canteen when we came to watch the 1994 World Cup because we were locals. Dutchbat were strange that way: during the siege, they enforced rules related to local staff with rigour. That rigour petered out in the face of Ratko Mladić.

Hasan made the phone call because of increasing rumours that the Serbs were requesting – and the Dutch were considering – the handing over of the locally-employed staff, some of whom found refuge in the Dutch base with their families. Hasan and I, together with some dozen other “local staff,” left the base in Potočari on July 21, after a torturous 10 days. By the time the Dutchbat evacuated the base and Mladić ceremoniously presented the Dutchbat commander Thon Karremans with gifts for him and his wife on the border crossing between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia, we were all at our wit’s end. But we survived.

Following the IRMCT verdict, it is now certain that Mladić, the man who oversaw the genocide, is going to spend his remaining years in prison. But Mladić is no longer the enemy – his poisonous heritage, especially in Bosnia and Herzegovina, is.

I refuse to be his hostage, and I want to honour the man who saved lives in those dark days. I do not remember meeting Kenneth Biser again, and I am sure I never thanked him properly or acknowledged him in the way he deserved for what he did for me and others. I am sure that his actions on Hasan’s and my behalf saved the lives of others from the base as well.

I have no other way of saying thank you except like this. Thank you, Ken. Thank you on behalf of my daughter as well.

The views expressed in this article are the author’s own and do not necessarily reflect Al Jazeera’s editorial stance.

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Armenia: Nikol Pashinyan claims victory in snap polls | Elections News




Nikol Pashinyan, the acting prime minister of Armenia, has claimed victory in a snap parliamentary election he had called in an effort to defuse a political crisis following a disastrous war with Azerbaijan.

With 75 percent of results declared, Pashinyan’s Civil Contract party had 55.61 percent of the vote on Monday. The electoral alliance of his top rival, former President Robert Kocharyan, had 20 percent of the vote, according to the Central Election Commission (CEC).

Voter turnout was about 50 percent, with some 2.6 million people eligible to vote.

“The people of Armenia have given our Civil Contract party a mandate to lead the country and personally me to lead the country as prime minister,” Pashinyan said early on Monday.

“We already know that we won a convincing victory in the elections and we will have a convincing majority in parliament,” he added.

Kocharyan’s bloc, however, questioned the credibility of the preliminary results and said it would not recognise Pashinyan’s quick claim to victory, which came when just 30 percent of precincts had been counted.

“Hundreds of signals from polling stations testifying to organised and planned falsifications serve as a serious reason for lack of trust,” the bloc said in a statement, adding it would not “recognise” the results until the “violations” were studied.

Armenia’s former President Robert Kocharyan visits a polling station to cast his vote during the snap parliamentary election in Yerevan, Armenia June 20, 2021 [Vahram Baghdasaryan/Photolure via Reuters]

Earlier on Sunday evening, the general prosecutor’s office said it had received 319 reports of violations. It said it had opened six criminal probes, all of which concerned bribes during campaigning.

The election is being monitored by experts from the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), which recently assessed the voting as largely fair and free. They will deliver an overall verdict on Monday.

Opinion polls prior to the election had put the two parties neck and neck. And while a record four electoral blocs and 21 parties ran for election, only a handful are expected to win seats in parliament.

Six-day war

Pashinyan had called the snap poll to try to end a political crisis that erupted after ethnic Armenian forces lost a six-week war against Azerbaijan last year and ceded territory in and around the Nagorno-Karabakh region. More than 6,500 people were killed in the war, according to the latest official figures from Armenia and Azerbaijan.

Pashinyan has since been under pressure, with regular street protests demanding he step down over the terms of the peace agreement that ended the conflict. Under the deal, which was brokered by Russia, Azerbaijan regained control of territory it had lost during a war in the early 1990s. Pashinyan himself described the agreement as a disaster, but said he had been compelled to sign it in order to prevent greater human and territorial losses.

From Moscow’s perspective, Pashinyan is a guarantor that the agreement will remain in place. This includes the stationing of some 2,000 Russian peacekeepers in Nagorno-Karabakh.

Arsen Kharatyan, a former adviser to Pashinyan, told Al Jazeera the results gave the acting prime minister a chance to form a government “so that the internal political turmoil stops”.

“Now, how are you going to handle the situation that Armenia is in? In the larger picture, the security architecture of the region has not changed much since the war. Russia is still going to be a major player in all of this. So, whoever comes in to power is going to have to deal with Moscow quite directly,” Kharatyan said, adding that Sunday’s vote also showed none of the parties who campaigned on a “pro-Western agenda got enough votes”.

Armenia, which hosts a Russian military base, is a close ally of Moscow, although Pashinyan, who came to power on the back of street protests and on an anti-corruption agenda in 2018, has had cooler relations with the Kremlin.

Turkey, which supported Azerbaijan in last year’s conflict, will also be watching the election closely.

Conflicting opinions

On the streets of Yerevan on Sunday, Armenians voiced conflicting opinions about Pashinyan.

Voter Anahit Sargsyan said the prime minister, who spearheaded peaceful protests against corrupt elites in 2018, deserved another chance.

She said she feared the return of the old guard whom she accused of plundering the country.

“I voted against a return to the old ways,” said the 63-year-old former teacher.

An Armenian woman casts her ballot paper at a polling station during a snap parliamentary election – called after last year’s defeat in fighting over Nagorno-Karabakh – in Yerevan, Armenia, Sunday, June 20, 2021 [Sergei Grits/AP Photo]

Another voter, Vardan Hovhannisyan, said he had cast his ballot for Kocharyan, who calls Russian leader Vladimir Putin his friend.

“I voted for secure borders, solidarity in society, the return of our war prisoners, the wellbeing of the wounded and a strong army,” said the 41-year-old musician.

Kocharyan, who hails from Karabakh, has accused Armenia’s leadership of inaction during last year’s war and pledged to start negotiations on Nagorno-Karabakh’s borders if he came to power.

Kocharyan was president of Armenia from 1998 to 2008 and was accused of acting unlawfully when he introduced a state of emergency in March 2008 after a disputed election.

At least 10 people were killed in the clashes that followed between police and protesters.

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New Zealand’s Hubbard selected as first transgender Olympian | LGBTQ News




Laurel Hubbard, 43, will compete in the super-heavyweight women’s event in Tokyo.

Weightlifter Laurel Hubbard will become the first transgender athlete to compete at the Olympics after being selected by New Zealand for the women’s event at the Tokyo Games, a decision set to test the ideal of fair competition in sport.

New Zealand Olympic Committee chief Kereyn Smith said 43-year-old Hubbard – who was assigned male at birth but transitioned to female in 2013 – had met all the qualification criteria for transgender athletes.

“We acknowledge that gender identity in sport is a highly sensitive and complex issue requiring a balance between human rights and fairness on the field of play,” Smith said in a statement.

Hubbard will compete in the super-heavyweight 87-kg category after showing testosterone levels below the threshold required by the International Olympic Committee (IOC).

The 43-year-old had competed in men’s weightlifting competitions before transitioning.

“I am grateful and humbled by the kindness and support that has been given to me by so many New Zealanders,” Hubbard, an intensely private person who rarely speaks to the media, said in a statement issued by the New Zealand Olympic Committee (NZOC) on Monday.

Hubbard has been eligible to compete at Olympics since 2015, when the IOC issued guidelines allowing any transgender athlete to compete as a woman provided their testosterone levels are below 10 nanomoles per litre for at least 12 months before their first competition.

Some scientists have said the guidelines do little to mitigate the biological advantages of people who have gone through puberty as males, including bone and muscle density.

Advocates for transgender inclusion argue the process of transition decreases that advantage considerably and that physical differences between athletes mean there is never a truly level playing field.

Save Women’s Sport Australasia, an advocacy group for women athletes, criticised Hubbard’s selection.

“It is flawed policy from the IOC that has allowed the selection of a 43-year-old biological male who identifies as a woman to compete in the female category,” the group said in a statement.

Weightlifting has been at the centre of the debate about the fairness of transgender athletes competing against women, and Hubbard’s presence in Tokyo could prove divisive.

Her gold medal wins at the 2019 Pacific Games in Samoa, where she topped the podium ahead of Samoa’s Commonwealth Games champion Feagaiga Stowers, triggered outrage in the host nation.

Samoa’s weightlifting boss said Hubbard’s selection for Tokyo would be like letting athletes “dope” and feared it could cost the small Pacific nation a medal.

Belgian weightlifter Anna Vanbellinghen said last month allowing Hubbard to compete at Tokyo was unfair for women and “like a bad joke”.

Australia’s weightlifting federation sought to block Hubbard from competing at the 2018 Commonwealth Games on the Gold Coast but organisers rejected the move.

Hubbard was forced to withdraw after injuring herself during competition, and thought her career was over.

“When I broke my arm at the Commonwealth Games three years ago, I was advised that my sporting career had likely reached its end,” Hubbard said on Monday, thanking New Zealanders.

“But your support, your encouragement, and your aroha (love) carried me through the darkness.”

Olympic Weightlifting New Zealand President Richie Patterson said Hubbard had worked hard to come back from the potentially career-ending injury.

“Laurel has shown grit and perseverance in her return from a significant injury and overcoming the challenges in building back confidence on the competition platform,” he said.

Hubbard is currently ranked 16th in the world in the super heavyweight category.

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Apple Daily could shut ‘in days’ after Hong Kong asset freeze | Freedom of the Press News




Company adviser says action under security law means it cannot access some $50 million in funds to pay staff and vendors.

Hong Kong pro-democracy newspaper Apple Daily will be forced to shut “in a matter of days” after authorities used the national security law imposed by China to freeze the company’s assets as it arrested the paper’s editor and four other directors, an adviser to jailed tycoon Jimmy Lai told Reuters on Monday.

Mark Simon, speaking by phone from the United States, said the company was no longer able to access its funds and would be holding a board meeting on Monday to discuss how to move forward.

“We thought we’d be able to make it to the end of the month,” Simon told the news agency. “It’s just getting harder and harder. It’s essentially a matter of days.”

His comments signal closure is imminent even after Apple Daily said on Sunday the freezing of its assets had left the newspaper with cash for “a few weeks” for normal operations.”

The news comes two days after editor Ryan Law, 47, and chief executive Cheung Kim-hung, 59, were denied bail after being charged under the security law with collusion with foreign forces.

Apple Daily’s editor-in-chief Ryan Law arrives back at the detention centre after he was remanded in custody on Saturday [Lam Yik/Reuters]

Three other senior executives were also arrested last Thursday when 500 police officers raided the newspaper’s offices in a case that has drawn condemnation from Western nations, human rights groups and the chief United Nations spokesperson for human rights.

The three have been released on bail.

Simon told Reuters it had become impossible to conduct banking operations.

“Vendors tried to put money into our accounts and were rejected. We can’t bank. Some vendors tried to do that as a favour. We just wanted to find out and it was rejected,” he said.

Speaking earlier to US news channel CNN, Simon said the company had about $50 million available, but was unable to access the funds.

The publisher has come under increasing pressure since its owner Jimmy Lai was arrested under the national security law last August, which marked the first time the company’s headquarters was raided. Lai, 73, is now jailed and facing trial under the national security law. In May, the authorities also froze some assets belonging to the longtime critic of Beijing has also had some of his assets frozen.

Three companies related to Apple Daily are also being prosecuted for collusion with a foreign country and authorities have frozen HK$18 million ($2.3 million) of their assets.

China imposed the national security law on Hong Kong last June saying it was necessary to restore “stability” to a territory that had been rocked by mass protests in 2019, some of which turned violent.

The broadly-worded law criminalises acts such as subversion, sedition, collusion with foreign forces and secession with possible life imprisonment, but critics have said it is being used to suppress legitimate political debate with dozens of pro-democracy politicians and activists among the more than 100 arrested since it was brought into force.

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