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Endless first wave: How Indonesia failed to control coronavirus | Coronavirus pandemic News

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Only last week, Luhut Pandjaitan, Indonesia‘s maritime minister and close confidant of the country’s president, touted herbal mangosteen juice as a coronavirus remedy.

His suggestion was the latest in a string of unorthodox treatments put forward by members of Joko Widodo’s cabinet during the past six months, ranging from prayer to rice wrapped in banana leaf to eucalyptus necklaces.

The remedies reflect the unscientific approach to battling the coronavirus in the world’s fourth-most populous country, where the rate of testing is among the world’s lowest, contact tracing is minimal, and authorities have resisted lockdowns even as infections spiked.

Indonesia has officially reported 6,346 deaths from COVID-19, the disease caused by the new coronavirus, the highest overall toll in Southeast Asia. Including people who died with acute COVID-19 symptoms but were not tested, the death toll is three times higher.

Indonesia shows no signs of containing the virus. It now has the fastest infection spread in East Asia, with 17 percent of people tested turning out positive, rising close to 25 percent outside the capital, Jakarta. Figures above 5 percent mean an outbreak is not under control, according to the World Health Organization.

“This virus has already spread all over Indonesia. What we are doing is basically herd immunity,” said Prijo Sidipratomo, dean of the Faculty of Medicine at the National Veterans Development University in Jakarta. “So, we should just dig many, many graves.” Herd immunity describes a scenario where a large proportion of the population contracts the virus and then widespread immunity stops the disease from spreading.

Government spokesman Wiku Adisasmito did not respond to detailed questions from Reuters. He said the number of infections was “a warning for Indonesia to continuously improve its handling effort,” and that positive cases per capita in Indonesia were lower than most countries. President Joko Widodo’s office did not respond to questions sent by Reuters.

To be sure, Indonesia‘s confirmed 144,945 infections out of a population of 270 million are much less than the millions reported in the United States, Brazil and India, and below the neighbouring Philippines, which has less than half Indonesia‘s population. But the true scale of Indonesia‘s outbreak may still be hidden: India and the Philippines are testing four times more per capita, while the US is testing 30 times more.

Statistics from Our World in Data, a nonprofit research project based at the University of Oxford, show Indonesia ranked 83rd out of 86 countries surveyed for overall tests per capita.

“Our concern is that we have not reached the peak yet, that the peak may come around October and may not finish this year,” said Iwan Ariawan, an epidemiologist from the University of Indonesia. “Right now, we can’t say it is under control.”

‘Pure nonsense’

At the start of the pandemic, Indonesia‘s government was slow to respond and reluctant to reveal what it knew to the public, according to more than 20 government officials, test laboratory managers and public health experts who spoke to Reuters.

Despite surging cases in neighbouring countries and having 3,000 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test kits – the WHO-approved test for detecting the coronavirus – ready by early February, the government said fewer than 160 tests had been conducted by March 2.

On March 13, Widodo said the government was withholding information so as not to “stir panic”. During the first two weeks of March, the government concealed at least half of the daily infections it was aware of, two people with access to the data told Reuters. The two people said they were later restricted from seeing the raw data.

A call by Widodo in March for a massive expansion of rapid diagnostic testing may have undermined the country’s testing regime, according to Alvin Lie, a commissioner in the office of the Indonesian Ombudsman, an official government watchdog.

Scientific studies have shown rapid tests, which test blood samples for antibodies, were found to be far less accurate than the PCR method, which tests swabs from the nose or throat for genetic material. Widodo’s push to use a less-reliable test diverted resources away from PCR tests, three lab managers told Reuters.

Lie told Reuters that importers of the rapid tests, including large state-owned enterprises and private companies, made “huge profits” by charging consumers up to one million rupiah ($68), even though each test costs only 50,000 rupiah ($3.50).

By mid-April, provincial governments said rapid testing in the provinces in West Java, Bali and Yogyakarta produced hundreds of false negatives and false positives.

But the tests continued to be widely used and it took until July for imports of rapid tests to be halted and for the government to introduce a price cap of 150,000 rupiah ($10). In July, Indonesia also formally advised provincial governments and others not to use rapid testing for diagnostic purposes in their updated guidelines for COVID-19 prevention and control.

But Lie said there is a huge stockpile and rapid tests are still being broadly deployed, including for screening office workers and travellers to allow them to move freely for 14 days.

“That is like saying for the next 14 days after the rapid test they are free from the virus. That’s pure nonsense. All it indicates, and not very accurately, is they were free from the virus when the sample was taken,” said Lie.

Adisasmito declined to comment on whether the president’s call for rapid testing undermined its overall testing efforts. He did acknowledge the inaccuracies of rapid testing but said it was still useful in some situations where the capacity to use PCR tests is limited, including screening travellers. He did not directly answer questions about companies making large profits from tests.

The central government does not disclose the level of national rapid testing. But data from West Java, Indonesia‘s largest province with 50 million people, shows that it has conducted 50 percent more rapid tests than PCR tests.

Government officials say 269 labs with PCR machines are now operating. However, the labs are increasingly unable to meet demand as infections rise. The number of suspected cases – those with COVID-19 symptoms who have not been tested – has doubled to 79,000 in the past month, according to government data.

Part of the problem is that lab capacity is far from being fully utilised, according to four health officials. One senior health ministry official, Achmad Yurianto, told Reuters Indonesia was able to test 30,000 people per day, more than twice the daily average of 12,650 people tested during the past month.

Five lab managers and consultants contacted by Reuters said the failure to use the country’s testing capacity was due to government mismanagement that had led to shortages of staff and reagents, chemicals needed for the tests.

Adisasmito did not respond to questions about the government’s management of testing. Last week, explaining the shortfall in testing, Yurianto said labs did not have enough time to check all specimens, with some labs working limited days and hours.

Minimal contact tracing 

Widespread PCR testing and quick results are essential for tracing the contacts of those infected by the coronavirus. According to national guidelines released by Indonesia‘s health ministry on July 13, contact tracing is “the main key in breaking the COVID-19 transmission chain”.

Reuters spoke to 12 health workers across Indonesia who described the country’s contact tracing effort as bungled and ineffective.

Passengers queue to board a commuter train during the morning rush hour on the outskirts of Jakarta on July 27. Doctors say the country is still battling an endless first wave of the coronavirus [Fakhri Hermansyah/Antara Foto via Reuters]

Rahmat Januar Nor, a health official in the city of Banjarmasin in Indonesian Borneo, said information about new coronavirus cases often came into his office in varying states of disorder, with incomplete names, inactive phone numbers or outdated addresses for patients and their contacts, problems seen by healthcare workers across the country.

“We asked the village leaders for help,” Nor told Reuters. “But in the end, we didn’t find them (the contacts) most of the time.”

When they did reach contacts, many refused to be tested, fearful they would lose their jobs or be ostracised in the community, Nor and other health officials said.

Unpublished data from the government COVID-19 task force, reviewed by Reuters, shows only 53.7 percent of people identified as confirmed or suspected carriers of the disease were subjected to contact tracing by June 6.

Adisasmito did not provide more recent contract tracing data but acknowledged it “remains low” and said the government aimed to track 30 people per positive case. That is still low compared with other Asian countries. South Korea said in May it traced and tested almost 8,000 people after a man with the virus visited a nightclub.

According to five people familiar with the matter, the WHO advised Indonesian authorities that contact tracing should involve at least 20 people tracked per confirmed and suspected case. But Indonesia is only averaging about two traced contacts per case, according to provincial officials and data reviewed by Reuters.

In Jakarta, where the epidemic first took hold in the country, the data shows fewer than two contacts traced, on average, for each confirmed and suspected case in July.

In East Java, another hotspot, tracing rates are 2.8 contacts per each confirmed and suspected patient, according to researchers from Airlangga University.

A WHO spokesperson said Indonesia began following its contact tracing recommendations in mid-July.

‘Always on the first wave’ 

Indonesia‘s decision to reject full lockdowns was driven by economic and security concerns, said government advisers.

Instead, it has urged Indonesians to wear masks, wash their hands and practise social distancing while working, travelling and socialising.

Firefighters Indonesia coronavirus

Firefighters wearing protective suits spray disinfectant at the National Monument area to prevent the spread of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Jakarta in June [Wahyu Putro/Antara Foto via Reuters]

“The argument was that we could not [afford it],” Soewarta Kosen, a health economist who consulted the government on its coronavirus response, told Reuters. “We were afraid that there would be social unrest.”

Widodo’s emphasis on the economy is popular, polling shows. The Indonesian economy only shrank 5.3 percent in the second quarter of 2020, much less than many other regional economies. But epidemiologists said they fear the decision will cost Indonesia more in the long term, especially as its health system is poorly equipped to cope if positive cases continue to surge.

Dr Bambang Pujo, an avid runner and anaesthetist at the main COVID-19 referral hospital in Indonesia‘s second-largest city of Surabaya, said mortality rates in his ward are between 50 percent and 80 percent and there are not enough beds.

“Ten hours inside a hazmat suit is like running a marathon twice,” he said, describing the long hours he spends in protective gear inside the intensive care unit. “Imagine how we feel. It is like playing God. We hope that we don’t make mistakes and, if we do, we are forgiven.”

Indonesia has only 2.5 intensive care beds per 100,000 people, according to the country’s national disaster agency, which leads the COVID-19 task force. That compares with 6.9 per 100,000 people in India, according to an April report from Princeton University. Adisasmito said the healthcare system is being continuously improved.

“We must know that our infrastructure is not ready for a pandemic like this,” said Pujo. “Other countries have heard of second waves. We’re always on the first wave.”



Source – www.aljazeera.com

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FDC activists win Bank of Uganda pig case by simply keeping quiet

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FDC activists Augustine Ojobile and Robert Mayanja

Buganda Road Magistrate’s court has acquitted two opposition Forum for Democratic Change (FDC) activists Augustine Ojobile and Robert Mayanja of common nuisance charges.

FDC deputy chief administrative officer Ojobile and Mayanja have been acquitted by the grade one magistrate Fidelis Otwao on charges stemming from their protest held in November 2018 when they carried pig heads to the central police station (CPS) in Kampala protesting the rot in the Bank of Uganda that had reportedly resulted into the closure of a number of commercial banks in the country for many years.


According to them, corruption at the Central bank had been the sole ingredient for the closure of commercial banks in Uganda over the years because it reportedly mismanaged them and made erroneous decisions that led to their closure.

With fresh pig heads tied around their necks and stinking blood oozing across their white T-shirts, Mayanja and Ojobile walked through the streets of Kampala to the police in a protest that was spearheaded by their pressure group known as the Jobless Youth.

One pig head had a placard bearing the name of the former and late BOU governor Emmanuel Tumusiime Mutebile and the other of his former deputy Louis Kasekende.

The protest at CPS came a few days after another that was staged at the Central bank where two piglets were dumped bearing the name of Juma Kisaame (a Muslim), the former managing director of DFCU bank. 

As a result, the duo was arrested and taken to Buganda Road court on charges of common nuisance and the prosecution adduced evidence from five witnesses who included police officers and Muslims who were reportedly angered by the protest.

According to the witnesses, the actions of Mayanja and Ojobile were annoying to the people whose names were mentioned and tagged on pig heads, and the smell that was coming out of the fresh pig heads was most likely to result in injury to a considerable number of the public by affecting their health, and the protest affected businesses since some shops allegedly had to close to see what was happening outside due to their commotion.

But when Mayanja and Ojobile were asked to defend themselves over the allegations, the duo that didn’t have legal representation chose to keep quiet as their defense and let the court make its decision based on what the prosecution witnesses had testified to.

In a judgement read today Friday by Otwao, he indicated that the evidence from the prosecution witnesses is wanting because none of the people alleged to have been annoyed by the actions of the activists testified in the case or recorded a statement with police.

According to Otwao, the testimonies were based on what the witnesses were feeling as individuals and that there were no abusive statements on the pig heads that the prosecution had indicated which would cause annoyance, save for putting the names of people only. 

As such, the court has ruled that such testimonies cannot be relied on to convict a person because the prosecution has failed to prove that there was common injury, danger to the public or destruction of property.

Consequently, the magistrate has acquitted the duo and directed that each of them starts the process to seek a refund of the Shs 500,000 that each had paid to be released on bail.

The activists have welcomed the ruling saying that the court has recognized that the citizens have a right to protest peacefully.

The pig protests have been commonly used by activists who subscribe to this group known as the Jobless Brotherhood which has since rebranded to the “Alternative”.

In 2016, their members including Luta Ferdinand who is now facing trial in the court-martial on different charges, and Joseph Lukwago were arrested for dumping piglets at parliament protesting the Shs 200 million given to each MP for buying personal cars.



Source – observer.ug

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Saudi Arabia executes 81 people in a single day | Death Penalty News

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The death penalty applied for a range of charges in the largest known mass execution carried out in the kingdom’s modern history.

Saudi Arabia has executed 81 men over the past 24 hours, including seven Yemenis and one Syrian national, on charges including “allegiance to foreign terrorist organisations” and holding “deviant beliefs”, state news agency Saudi Press Agency said, in the largest known mass execution carried out in the kingdom in its modern history.

The number dwarfed the 67 executions reported in the kingdom in 2021 and the 27 in 2020.

“These individuals … were convicted of various crimes including murdering innocent men, women and children,” SPA said on Saturday, citing a statement from the interior ministry.

“Crimes committed by these individuals also include pledging allegiance to foreign terrorist organisations, such as ISIS [ISIL], al-Qaeda and the Houthis,” it added.

Some travelled to conflict zones to join “terrorist organisations”, according to the SPA.

“The accused were provided with the right to an attorney and were guaranteed their full rights under Saudi law during the judicial process,” it said.

“The kingdom will continue to take a strict and unwavering stance against terrorism and extremist ideologies that threaten the stability of the entire world,” the report added.

The men included 37 Saudi nationals who were found guilty in a single case for attempting to assassinate security officers and targeting police stations and convoys, the report added.

Saudi Arabia’s last mass execution was in January 2016, when the kingdom executed 47 people, including a prominent opposition Shia leader who had rallied demonstrations in the kingdom.

In 2019, the kingdom beheaded 37 Saudi citizens, most of them minority Shia, in a mass execution across the country for alleged “terrorism”-related crimes.

Saudi Arabia’s human rights records have been under increasing scrutiny from rights groups and Western allies since the killing of Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi in 2018.

It has faced strong criticism of its restrictive laws on political and religious expression, and the implementation of the death penalty, including for defendants arrested when they were minors.

Saudi Arabia denies accusations of human rights abuses and says it protects its national security according to its laws.

SPA said the accused were provided with the right to a lawyer and were guaranteed their full rights under Saudi law during the judicial process.



Source – www.aljazeera.com

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Nigerian student in Ukraine: 'Mummy we keep hearing bombs'

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Hauwa’s son Suleiman is a Nigerian student in Sumy – she says the family are fearful and anxious.



Source – www.bbc.co.uk

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